We learned that the prisoners were sent from the UK, mostly from London because the empire wanted to get rid of their scum. Deportation meant to send these people on convict ships to Australia without a return ticket, even after the sentence was done. Even children, the youngest at the age of eight, were sent to the land where nothing was. The first prisoners had to build their own prison by cutting cubes of limestone from the hill. We also were told that the court we were standing on was a place where the prisoners only were allowed to walk if they had a special licence in form of a paper that you had to hold up at any time. If you didn't you were suspicious to not owe such a paper: you heard a threatening whistle, then a threatening shot, and if you didn't show a paper then you were shot immediately. Harsh conditions.
The prison was initially built for convicts, poor persons who, e.g., stole food in a store, like that eight year-old boy. That time Great Britain was the global power and couldn't agree with criminal acts like shoplifting or burglary. There was no way back to Europe. There was nothing in Australia except for a deathly desert. No water, no food, nobody, no artificial light! When the sun went down it was dark, candles were too dangerous. Somewhen later the people caused a huge fire in the roof timber as a protest. Electric lighting only came in the 1920s.
On the right, a cell for the really bad guys (not even a toilet bucket)